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Saturday, 27 September 2014

Recent reports indicate Fukushima was 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater in USA than Chernobyl (100 to 1,000 times greater)

Reference material, Chernobyl, for making comparisons in your West Coast research
Recent reports indicate Fukushima was 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater in USA than Chernobyl (100 to 1,000 times greater)
[this is now 8th grade math and I still have to check]
1 order of magnitude =1×10=10
10
2 orders of magnitude =1×10×10=100
10
3 orders of magnitude =1×10×10×10=1000

Juzdan, Z.J., Helfer, I.K., Miller, K.M., Rivera, W., Sanderson, C.G. and Silvestri, S. (1986). Deposition of radionuclides in the northern hemisphere following the Chernobyl accident. In:Environmental Measurements Laboratory: A compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident: October 1, 1986. Report No. EML-460. U.S. Department of Energy, New York, NY.

May 5, 1986
Forks, WA
Wet and dry deposition
137Cs
301.55 Bq/m2
May 5, 1986
Forks, WA
Wet and dry deposition
131I
1200 Bq/m2
May 5, 1986
Forks, WA
Wet and dry deposition
103Ru
134.68 Bq/m2
May 5, 1986
Forks, WA
Wet and dry deposition
134Cs
72.89 Bq/m2
Larsen, R.J., Sanderson, C.G., Rivera, W. and Zamichieli, M. (1986). The characterization of radionuclides in North American and Hawaiian surface air and deposition following the Chernobyl accident. In: Environmental Measurements Laboratory: A compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident: October 1, 1986. Report No. EML-460. U.S. Department of Energy, New York, NY. pg. 1-104.

May 11, 1986
Rexburg, Idaho
Air concentration
131I
11,390 µBq/m3
May 11, 1986
New York City
Air concentration
131I
20,720 µBq/m3
May 11, 1986
New York City
Air concentration
137Cs
9,720 µBq/m3
May 1986
Rexburg, Idaho
Total ground deposition
131I
707 Bq/m2
May 1986
Chester, NJ
Total ground deposition
131I
168.4 Bq/m2
May 1986
Chester, NJ
Total ground deposition
137Cs
68.5 Bq/m2

Chernobyl debris appeared in both eastern and western sites of the U.S. in similar magnitudes. The mean activity ratio of cesium-137 to cesium-134 was 1.9 at all sites.

This is a detailed survey of air concentration radioactivity levels at Barrow, Alaska; Moosonee, Canada; Beaverton, Oregon; Rexburg, Idaho; Chester, NJ; NY, NY; Biscayne, Florida; Miami, Florida; Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

Small quantities of numerous Chernobyl-derived radionuclides were noted at most stations including 103,106Ru, 140Ba,140La, 95Zr, 95Mo, 141Ce, 144Ce.
Larsen, R.J., Haagenson, P.L. and Reiss, N.M. (1989). Transport processes associated with the initial elevated concentrations of Chernobyl radioactivity in surface air in the United States. J. Environ. Radioactivity. 10. pg. 1-18.

"The nearly simultaneous arrival of radioactive debris at widely separated locations resulted from different paths being taken by the debris released at different times during the course of the accident." The plume pathways crossed the Arctic within the lower troposphere, and the Pacific Ocean within the mid-troposphere. (pg. 1).

Peak concentrations of gross beta: 2.0 pCi/m3 (74,000 µBq/m3 on May 10 in South-central Idaho.)
This report contains radiometric data (isopleths) of gross beta concentration which are unusually uniform given the erratic patterns of Chernobyl fallout noted in other countries and do not match the data contained in some other reports.

Larsen, R., Juzdan, Z.R. (1986). Radioactivity at Barrow and Mauna Loa following the Chernobyl accident. In: Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, No. 14, Summary Report 1985. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington.

May 1986
Barrow, Alaska
Surface air concentration
131I
218.7 fCi/m3
May 1986
Barrow, Alaska
Surface air concentration
134Cs
18.6 fCi/m3
May 1986
Barrow, Alaska
Surface air concentration
137Cs
27.6 fCi/m3
May 1986
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Surface air concentration
131I
28.5 fCi/m3
May 1986
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Surface air concentration
134Cs
11.2 fCi/m3
May 1986
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Surface air concentration
137Cs
22.9 fCi/m3

Air concentration is usually reported in picocuries, or in Europe, in microbecquerels (µBq); a femtocurie (10-15) is three orders of magnitude less than a picocurie (10-12). The minimum detectable level in air is 0.01 pCi/m3 (10 femtocuries). Most U.S. reports of radioactivity in air are not nuclide specific, but rather summarize gross beta activity in airborne particulates.

These data show a minimal impact from the Chernobyl accident but make interesting points of comparison with the real time air concentrations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides recorded in Finland, as well as in other sections of North America (see Canada).

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1986). Environmental radiation data: Report 46: April 1986-June 1986. Report No. EPA520/5-87-004. U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C.

May 11, 1986
Montpelier, VT
Precipitation
Gross beta
6.26 nCi/m2
May 12, 1986
Spokane, WA
Precipitation
131I
6,620 pCi/l
May 13, 1986
Cheyenne, WY
Precipitation
137Cs
710 pCi/l
May 16, 1986
Cheyenne, WY
Precipitation
Gross beta
710 pCi/l
May 1986
Lincoln, NE
Air particulate
Gross beta
14.3 pCi/m3
June 4, 1986
Seattle, WA
Milk
137Cs
66 pCi/l

A wide variety of gamma emitting nuclides noted throughout the U.S. in May, '86 including 103Ru, 106Ru, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 132I and 95Zr/
Extensive 131I in precipitation in May throughout US in all stations, with 15 reports above 1000 pCi/l.

14.3 pCi/m3 is in excess of 500,000 µBq/m3, one of the highest levels of air particulate activity in the U.S. since the termination of nuclear weapons testing.
Ground deposition activities are not included in EPA reports

Credits to Mark Casebier and Enenews:
http://enenews.com/experts-fukushima-disaster-globally-enhanced-cesium-137-levels-in-air-by-2-to-3-orders-of-magnitude-radioactive-plume-that-reached-europe-contaminated-the-land-and-as-a-consequence-the-whol



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