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Tuesday, 8 July 2014

Plutonium And Cesium Bio-Accumulates Up To 26,000 Times In Ocean Algae, Up To 5,570,000 Bq/Kg in Land Algae

July 8, 2014 at 

1:29pm Submitted D'un Renard

Radioactive Seaweed Found With 40,000,000 Bq per Kilogram - Seaweed Put Into Many Food Products

Bio-accumulation and bio-magnification are two terms that are often confused. This article will discuss bio- accumulation and bio magnification, define them, and show by example how both of them work specifically.


Bio-accumulation is what happens in the bottom of the food chain, with diatoms, algae, phyto-plankton, fungi, bottom filter-feeders, and bottom feeders, and on land in fungi, mushrooms, plants and the first layer of the food chain, whatever that is, from bacteria, to insects, to grass, etc.

Organisms that accumulate certain radioactive substances in especially high concentrations are called bio-indicators of radioactive contamination.


Bio-magnification is what happens when this first layer of life that bio-accumulated radiation is then eaten by the next layer of living things, which bio-magnifies that radiation further.


Let's explore what happens on the first step of the food chain, via algae.

In Japan, black algae grows along streets, in pools and in towns. After the Fukushima accident, this black algae are bio-concentrating alpha radiation emitting substance (such as plutonium) to a high level.

Radiation detectors show that this black substance/algae is emitting high amounts of radiation of gamma, beta and alpha radiation, depending on what kind of detector is used. Of course, pro nuclear officials say the substance is 'harmless'. Would these high radiation levels and concentrations be enough to make this algae glow in the dark?

Minami Soma City assemblyman Koichi Ooyama discloses the result of the test of the mysterious black dust found in locations in Minami Soma City [...]

[...] His measurement on the surface of this black dust was 295 microsieverts/hour. Assemblyman Ooyama apparently sent the sample to Professor Tomoya Yamauchi of Kobe University. Professor Yamauchi did the test, and here’s the result, from Assemblyman Ooyama’s blog:

Cs-134: 485,252 Bq/kg

Cs-137: 604,360 Bq/kg

Source: Mystery black substance has 1,000,000+ Bq/kg of cesium — Seen all over Minami Soma — Officials meeting to discuss findings February 16, 2012

This substance, whatever it is, is very dangerous. If it is not algae in every case, it could also very well be MOX (plutonium) fuel nano particle dust, according to Stephan, an analytical chemist posting on Enenews, largely because it is light, easily blows around.

In another news post, a black radioactive dust/algae sample was tested, and measured 309,000 Bq/Kg of cesium when wet and 1,080,000 Bq/Kg when dry.

- Plutonium 238 measured in Minamisoma (Fukushima Diary, April 26, 2012):
0.038 Bq/Kg (2.47Bq/m2) of Plutonium 238 was measured in Minamisoma.

They also measured 0.047 Bq/Kg of Plutonium 239 and 240, and 0.73 Bq/Kg of Plutonium 241.

8.5 Bq/Kg of Strontium 89, and 50 Bq/Kg of Strontium 90 was also measured

Minamisoma Official: Highly contaminated black algae observed everywhere — Due to bioaccumulation July 5, 2012

In the following Japanese language video, the black substance is determined to be blue-green algae, a specific form of cyanobacteria, according to Professor Saburo Suzuki of Tohoku University

"I’m Koichi Oyama, an official of Minamisoma City. I sent you additional information about the black substance we talked about yesterday. They are a bacterium type which likes to absorb the radioactive substance... everywhere on the paved surfaces in the residential area and at residential houses and they drift on the side walks,... and on the road..

Local Official: They found plutonium in every sample — Radiation-absorbing bacterium is everywhere on paved surfaces June 4, 2012

Minamisoma City; Total value of cesium 134 and 137
1,320,000 Haramachi District, Ushigoe algae types
1,960,000 Kashimaku District, Jisabara algae types
5,570,000 Odaka District, Kanaya algae types
16,200 Haramachi District, Kunimi soil
793,000 Odata District, Kamimachi algae types
430,000 Odata District, Motomachi algae types
583,000 Odata District, Motomachi algae types
2,970,000 Odata District, Kanaya algae types"

Scientists have been studying heavy metals (which are also radioactive) and how algae accumulate them...Here are a few links that lead to many scholarly research articles about this same subject.
Heavy metal accumulation by bacteria and other microorganisms

A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal biosorption by brown algae

Accumulation of heavy metals in unicellular algae

Microplate Technique for Determining Accumulation of Metals by Algae

Factors Influencing Metal Accumulation by Algae

This information and reporting from very credible sources (none of them affiliated with the nuclear industry or regulators) should be sufficient to show a person with any common sense, that algae can and does bio-concentrate various types of radiation to very high levels. So whether all of the samples tested are pure nano dust or pure algae or some combination of the two does not make any difference. At least some of these samples tested are algae, and that algae has been shown to bio-accumulate radiation.

Now let's move to the ocean and see if the same bio-accumulation of radioactive substances happens in algae there. In a UK study, it was "found that the Irish Sea has a micro layer on top of it, perhaps only thousandths of a millimeter in thickness, that can become imbued with fine particulate material and it's absorbed radiation. These concentrations of plutonium and americium are four to five times their concentrations in ambient seawater.

Plutonium concentrates by up to 26,000 times in floating algal blooms at sea, says the report.

Many scientific articles point at the same thing.... Algae do not just accumulate heavy metals. They also accumulate a wide variety of radioactive isotopes, of all kinds.

The Accumulation and Exchange of Strontium by Marine ... - ASLO

Uptake, Accumlation and Loss of Radioactive Cerium-144 ... - ASLO

Absorption of Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident ...

Accumulation of radioactive strontium by marine brown algae ...

Radioactive accumulation in alga samples from ... - SA Mihai - 1999 -
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 242 No. 2 (1999) 419-422.Radioactive accumulation in alga samples from Romanian Black Sea coast ...
Radioactive Contamination of the Biosphere definition of ...

Accumulation of radioactive strontium by brown algae VS Zlobin - 1966
Gig Sanit. 1966 Dec;31(12):86-8. [Accumulation of radioactive strontium by brown algae].

Accumulation of natural radioactive elements by azotobacter » [Accumulation of natural radioactive elements by azotobacter by the cells ofalgae and by protozoa]..

Radioactive accumulation in alga samples from Romanian Black ... SA Mihai - 1999

A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae

Oak Ridge National Laboratory measured algae with a radiation count 10,000 times that of the water in which it was growing. The blue- green, algae growing in the thermal waters of the nuclear reactor effluents of the Savannah River Plant were able to concentrate the mixed fission and corrosion products by factors as great as 10,000 (Watts Harvey, 1963)

It is also well known that slightly and even highly radioactive substances glow in particular ways.. Can algae that absorb high levels of radiation glow in the dark? Here is one example of how radioactive substances that are only slightly radioactive actually glow in the dark...

Here is another example of a 'nuclear pulse' glow in the dark.. In this example, a reactor core creates a blue flash and glows..

So far, you have seen radioactive substances and radioactive materials glowing in the dark. You have learned how radiation bioaccumulates in the first layer of the food chain. What happens when the highly radioactive algae that are a reality in our world today, are eaten by larger critters, which are then eaten by people or by larger fish?


As you have learned from the studies and examples provided in the article above, radiation bio - accumulates up into the first step of the food chain, into the algae both on land and in fresh or ocean water. As algae and/or other first step food ladder living things bio-accumulate radiation, how much will it bio-concentrate, and magnify by the time it gets up to human beings? Each step up the food chain can and does concentrate/magnify the radiation by 10 to 26,000 times, as you have learned from the above examples and tests.

With each step of magnifying and multiplying radiation up the food chain from algae, to micro organisms, to small fish, to slightly larger fish, and all the way up the food chain, radiation can and does bio-magnify starting from even very low levels of radiation in soil or water. Humans are not immune to this bio-magnification of even small amounts of radiation over time.

The level of concentration factors differ depending on the animal or plant involved. Some plants and animals concentrate or accumulate radiation at different rates.

Fukushima Pacific Ocean Radiation And How It Concentrates In Mussels, Sea Stars, Chitons, Clams, Oysters, And Fish; via @AGreenRoad

38,000,000 Bq/Kg Radioactive Iodine 129 Found On Leafy Vegetables, 59 Km From Fukushima Daichi; via @AGreenRoad

The French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute, April 20, 2011: “In the case of caesium, the concentration factors vary from 50 for molluscs and seaweed to 400 for fish. [...] These accumulation phenomena are ample justification for the establishment of radiological monitoring programmes.”

Stony Brook University researchers —Environmental Science & Technology, 2013: “137Cs and 134Cs in [Pacific blue fin tuna has] a dry wt concentration factor in PBFT muscle of 1000, and a wet wt concentration factor of 244, somewhat higher than the value of 100 calculated for generic marine fish.” ""coast-canadian-govt-s

Eating radioactive food that bio-magnified radiation to as little as 5 or 10 Bq/kg because it was grown on soils with only .5 Bq/kg radiation in it seems like it is too small an amount of radiation to do any harm, correct? However, studies from Chernobyl show that even eating low levels of radiation in food like this can eventually lead to being dangerous or lethal, given several years of doing this, because the radiation is not excreted. Cesium for example, builds up over time to 1,000 Bq/kg in the human body even when eating only small amounts of it, to potentially lethal amounts in a few years. Why does this happen?


The body sees radioactive elements as being almost identical to normal plant or animal minerals such as magnesium, potassium, iodine or iron, so it just absorbs them and tries to use them. However, man made radioactive elements are poisonous heavy metals and they are radioactive, acting like machine guns firing in all directions inside the body, destroying and damaging DNA plus cells, thus causing cancers and diseases.

Radioactive cesium mimics potassium, which goes to the muscles and specifically the heart.
Radioactive uranium mimics magnesium
Radioactive iodine mimics iodine, which goes to the thyroid gland
Radioactive plutonium mimics iron, which goes to the bones, liver and blood cells
Radioactive strontium mimics calcium, which goes to the bones and teeth
Hundreds of other radioactive elements act in the same way, each one damaging a different part of the body

The USA is downwind of the Fukushima mega nuclear accident. The US received low doses of radiation all across the nation, and that radiation settled into water, land, and all living things. There are also radioactive 'hot' spots scattered all across the nation, where radioactive rain came down and concentrated the radiation even more in an irregular patchwork quilt pattern.


It does not take massive quantities of radiation to eventually get a dose of radiation that affects health or genes in a negative way. Even small amounts of radiation do build up and are stored in the body. To find out more about how and why even low levels of radiation in humans can cause severe health problems, follow this link...

As Little As 10-30 Bq/kg of Cesium Radiation In Kids Causes Health Problems; via @AGreenRoad

Bottom line, what humans do to the Earth and to animals, comes back to humans, via the food chain via two primary processes, bio-accumulation in the first level of the food chain, and then bio-concentration/magnification up from there all the way to the top of the food chain, which is humans. Nature's laws cannot be broken and Nature cannot be fought. The nuclear industry is fighting all of Nature's laws and it will lose, due to the process of bio accumulation and bio magnification. All life on the planet is suffering due to the poisonous and radioactive man made elements moving up through the food chain and all living things.

As humans throw radioactive garbage into the environment, it bio-accumulates and bio-magnifies itself all the way back up to us, even from a 'diluted' and supposedly 'safe' amount. Even if we could somehow avoid extinction long term from accumulating radioactive poisons, the state of the ocean's health is deteriorating. All of this radioactive dumping and radiation from accidents as well as 'legal' radiation releases from reprocessing facilities and nuclear plants built on the ocean is having negative effects.


The number of living plankton in the oceans is being cut by massive amounts. Some scientists estimate that we have lost 50% of all algae and plankton that produce oxygen since the industrial/nuclear age began. Ocean algae produce 50% of the oxygen we need to survive. This spells bad news for humanity globally. We don't need to accelerate this process by killing algae and plankton with radiation.

Low Dose Radiation Causes Oxygen Depletion Globally, Kills Trees, Corals, Fish, Algae; via @AGreenRoad

On another note, these tiny living creatures also make up the bottom of the food chain. The Fukushima massive release of radiation may also have been responsible for the massive die off of several species, via the toxic effect of radiation going through and up the food chain, in addition to killing off a massive amount of the bottom of the food chain. Very little or no research has been done on this subject.
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